The Socabaya, the Sack of Russell and a curious case of Copper Bolts.

(This article originally published in the book 'Chasing the White Whale' by Lindsay Alexander)

While snuffling around dusty, tattered edges of forgotten nooks and crannies of Russell’s old history I recognised bits of a story worth the telling. Using a combination of luck and intuition, threads that tantalisingly appeared over an expanse of time and place were followed. A story has emerged that solves 170 year old mysteries and also encompasses a powerful Morality Tale.
Let’s begin with the ‘Sourabaya’, purportedly the ship that brought the cannon on the waterfront to Russell. But can we? The ‘Sourabaya’ is a fiction. She never existed, despite being mentioned in books, learned writings and worthy rambles about the Bay of Island’s past.
Here is the real story. And what a story!

Naval Battle of IslayNaval Battle of Islay January 1838 by Álvaro Casanova Zenteno

 

 

War
Astonishingly, we go back to South America in 1836 when the ship Francisca was built in the Ria del Guayas, Ecuador. In the same year Chile declared war against the newly formed Peru-Bolivian Confederation. The Francisca was purchased by the Confederation Navy in 1837. She was renamed the Socabaya, probably to celebrate the Battle of Socabaya that was fought in Peru in February 1836 and where the forces of Andres de Santa Cruz of Bolivia crushed an opposing Peruvian army. This victory lead directly to the creation of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation. The ‘War of the Confederation’ fought between Chile and Bolivia-Peru involved a number of naval encounters between the Confederate and Chilean fleets. The Socabaya took part in some of these dramatic actions including attacks on southern Chilean ports and the Battle of Islay in January 1838, where the Peruvian corbeta Socabaya played a critical role in the escape of the smaller Peruvian fleet1.

In a daring naval attack on the Peruvian port of Callao, the Chilean commander saw the Peruvian warship Socabaya anchored under the protective guns of the shore batteries. Late that night, on the 17th August 1838, boats with muffled oars and full of Chilean sailors rowed up to the side of the Socabaya and while under cannon and musket fire from the shore, stormed and captured the ship, cut the anchor cable and towed it out of range of the guns. This night’s action destroyed the Confederate fleet as a fighting force. The ‘cutting out’ of the Socabaya was as dramatic as any of the ship captures by the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. It had the ‘Nelson Touch’. The Socabaya, now a prize ship, was incorporated into the Chilean Navy and was said to have been used as a hospital ship in Valparaiso Harbour during a serious epidemic in that port2.

When peace was declared in 1839 (the federation of Peru and Bolivia was dissolved), Chile deemed that the cost of maintaining a large naval fleet was both expensive and unnecessary and in 1840 the 725 ton Socabaya was sold at auction for 13,100 pesos3 for service as a merchant ship.

Horses
In the early 1840s there was a short-lived boom in the trade of horses from Chile to Australia. Horses could be bought cheaply in Chile and sold for good profit in New South Wales. The trick was both to keep the beasts alive and to arrive at your destination. The now merchant ship Socabaya, reported as the ‘Soucabayia 800 tons’, left Valparaiso, Chile in late October 1840 bound for Sydney, via Tahiti with ‘upwards of 200 horses’. Horse transporters were specially modified for their trade and the logistics of provisioning for 200 horses are mind boggling, some 360 tons of fodder and about the same amount of water being needed to provide for a 50-day passage.

Captain Grant, as usual for these horse ships and probably to replenish water, put the Socabaya into Tahiti on the 14th December 18404. The ship was in some distress having sprung a leak on her passage, and to make matters worse, while approaching the harbour, ‘had the misfortune of striking on a coral rock and suffered much damage. She has to be hove down, and undergo considerable repairs5…The Soucabayia at Tahiti… a survey was to have been held, and it is very probable that she would be condemned…If she does come on to Sydney it will be some months before she can be expected’6. The horses - of which 18 had died during the sail from Valparaiso - were swum ashore to pasture and were said to be ‘dying very fast ashore’7. In February it was reported that the Soucabaya, Chilian ship, was still undergoing repairs and later in March more optimistically as ‘The Socabaya still under repair, horses well’8.

The Socabaya spent six months at Tahiti and left, presumably repaired, in May 1841 direct for Sydney. However in July ‘The Soucabayia, it appears she had come within two days sail of this port [Sydney], when she carried away her main yard and was obliged to run for New Zealand’9. The Socabaya began being referred to as the ‘Sourabaya’ from early August 1841 in Australian newspapers, such as the Tasmanian Cornwall Chronicle which reported that the ‘Sourabaya from Valparaiso to Sydney’ had met heavy weather, the leak had reappeared, and she ‘was obliged to put back from Sydney, main yard gone’10.
The ship came into the Bay of Islands, again in distress, and arrived off Russell on the 1st July 1841 ‘making thirty four inches per hour in harbour, it was not expected she would be able to leave the Bay’11.

There had been a substantial loss of horses. When leaving Valparaiso the Socabaya had ‘upwards of 200’ aboard but arrived at the Bay of Islands with either 110 or 129, depending on the report.

Socabaya Recorded ArrivalSocabaya’s recorded arrival at Russell from Valparaiso on 1 July 1841. Note that in date of departure ‘Wrecked’ is placed. Letters to Colonial Secretary IA 42/1267. N.Z. Archives Wellington.

Making the best of a bad deal, 25 or 30 horses, again the reports vary, were sold by local Russell auctioneer William Wilson soon after the ship’s arrival. What happened to the 100 or so other horses is not known. As part of the publicity before the sale it is said that Chilean cowboys, horse handlers for the voyage, exercised the steeds on Russell Beach conjuring up images of exotic huasos (Chilean cowboys), their distinctive corvo knives tucked into a red sash, galloping the horses along the strand. Their bloodlines are probably here still. The huasos’ I mean.

Condemned
No immediate decision as to what to do with the ship seems to have been made at that time, even while the crew dispersed to other ships; the surgeon drowned when the brig Sophia Pate was wrecked on the Kaipara bar mid-September 1841. Confusingly, until mid-January 1842, the Socabaya was reported as being ‘laid on’ in Sydney newspapers for the colony of New South Wales.

By late 1841 or early 1842, the Socabaya, after an inspection by a surveyor or a gaggle of captains and other knowledgeable worthies, was condemned. A ship will be condemned because of problems below the waterline, with hull failure through rot or age or accident. A condemned ship can be repaired, but the Socabaya was not repairable, certainly with the facilities available at Russell, and she was put up to be sold at auction. Benjamin Turner won the auction and so began one of those famous episodes of Russell’s old times. Turner contracted three men to break the ship up; they found the job bigger than they had thought it would be, and went to Turner for more money; Turner refused to pay; they refused to work. Turner summoned the contract-signer, Gibb, to court; the other two workmen promptly vanished. Gibb was imprisoned for three months (possibly for breach of contract) and then ordered to complete the break-up of the ship upon release from prison! The townsfolk were outraged by such an unfair sentence, appealed to the Governor, who requested that the Magistrate, probably Thomas Beckham, prove that the ruling was in accordance with the relevant Act. Gibb was released the next morning. The ‘Sourabaya’ (aka Socabaya) roadshow had arrived in town.

Some attempt at dismantling the ship was made as it was reported in Valparaiso that ‘rigging and equipment from the [Chilean] national frigate Sarabaya’12 had arrived at Valparaiso, direct from Russell New Zealand, in late July 1842 on the New York Packet.

Kororarika PaintingCharles Pharazyn. “Kororarika, Bay of Islands, New Zealand 1843”. Te Papa Museum.

The New York Packet cleared customs at Russell 3rd June 1842. It left 20 unclaimed casks of wine in bond at a storehouse here ‘its last port of call [in New Zealand]’. Given Russell’s reputation, that must have exercised the thoughts of some of our less salubrious citizens – and probably some of our more worthy ones as well. Note that it was the rigging that was sent to Valparaiso, not the masts.

C.J. Pharazyn’s well-known painting of Russell dated 1843 is cited as proof that the ‘Sourabaya’ (Socabaya) was still entire in that year. The lower masts are standing in the painting, but the topmasts have been dismantled, most likely when the rigging was removed, and we know that this was before early June 1842. It can be seen by comparison with the houses in the painting that this was a large ship.

Kororarika Paintingg CloseupDetail from Charles Pharazyn “Kororarika, Bay of Islands, New Zealand 1843” showing Socabaya in Matauwhi Bay. Te Papa Museum.

This is the end of the known history of the ship. (Actually, a lot of her lost history has just been told too). The question is, was the Socabaya broken up for the valuable resources contained within her - especially for a frontier town like Kororareka, or was she left to slowly rot into the mud?
I continue this story, never told before.

The next mention of the Socabaya is an advertisement for the auction of the ship at Matave (Matauwhi) Russell on 27th May 1844, the description seems pretty much as she looks in Pharazyn’s painting of the previous year.

Advertisement Socabaya auctionAdvertisement for auction of Socabaya. Daily Southern Cross 11 May 1844 p1. Alexander Turnbull Library.

Presumably the ship was sold. The guns are intriguing. Were they part of the Socabaya’s manifest? While ‘guns’ could just be pistols, it would seem unlikely that light firearms would still be aboard nearly three years after her arrival. The armament of the Socabaya was given by the Chilean Navy as 24 12-pounders. Were some of these still on the ship?

Pou
We move to February 1845. A Wellington newspaper on 22nd March 1845, obviously unaware of the sack of Russell on the 11th of March, states that after the three previous flagpoles on Te Maiki (Flagstaff Hill) had been felled ‘the Governor [Fitzroy] being determined to have a Flagstaff at the Bay of Islands in spite of John Heke entered into a contract with a carpenter to erect one…’13. This pole, made from a local tree and carried up to the top of Te Maiki, mysteriously vanished before it was raised, taken, it is said, by a local chief who stated that as he had been born underneath the tree it came from, he did not want the mast cut down as then he would surely die. ‘…[the] Governor being determined that maori feeling should be no further outraged has bought the mizzen mast of a Chilian [sic] man of war lying in the harbour*, to erect the flagpole’.

In 1848 Thomas Beckham signed an affidavit stating ‘I believe David Hay to be the lawful owner of the copper alluded to as I saw him breaking up the Ship ‘Sourabaya’14 from which it was obtained and I also purchased the mizen [sic] mast of that vessel from him in February or March 1845 for the New Zealand Govt. [Government] conceiving it to be his property*.

Sig. Thomas Beckham
July 7th 1848        Res: Mag:15

 

Gilbert Mair in June 1848 also states that ‘Mr David Hay16 of Auckland, shipbuilder, purchased the Peruvian vessel ‘Souchabaya*’ as she lay in the Bay of Islands in the end of the year 1844…that the said David Hay had taken the said wreck to pieces and had obtained considerable quantities of copper…’17.

*Authors emphasis.

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* It is interesting that Gilbert Mair refers to the Socabaya as a Peruvian, not a Chilean vessel. Did he know the history of the ship?
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We now know that the Socabaya was broken up by a David Hay, before February 1845. Presumably Hay purchased the ship at auction on 27th May 1844 from Turner or some unknown intermediary, and that he hired labour skilled enough, and paid enough, for the ship to be dismantled.

The fourth flagpole was erected on the 22nd February 1845. Thomas Beckham wrote to the Governor the same day saying that ‘The lower mast of the flag staff was erected this morning’18.
It was put up by the drilled crew of HMS Hazard, using techniques well honed from sailing ships. The topmast, weather permitting, would most likely have been put in place the same day or soon after.
The Hazard’s log notes:
4 [AM] Sent a party on shore to transport the Flag Staff to Signal Hill
8 [AM] Moderate and fine. Sent party on shore to erect the Flag Staff…
5 [PM] Party returned from Signal Station’19.

So let’s look at what we have from contemporay sources.

The ‘Governor’ purchases the mizzen mast of a Chilean man of war to be used as a flagpole at Russell, most likely February 1845 and that the flagpole was raised by crewmen from HMS Hazard on and soon after 22nd February 1845.

In ‘February or March 1845’ Thomas Beckam purchases the mizzen mast of the Sourabaya (aka Socabaya) a ship that had arrived from Chile and was formerly part of the Chilean Navy, ‘for the New Zealand Government’.

I believe that these two statements refer to the same event - there were not that many ships in the Chilean Navy - and that it was the mizzen mast of the Socabaya that was erected on Te Maiki in late February 1845. The coincidences appear overwhelming.

It was the mast from the Socabaya that Hone Heke felled a few days later, on 11th March 1845.

Here I must put in a qualification. Isn’t it always so! The Socabaya provided the lower mast for the flagpole, but what of the topmast and the yard? These seem to have been removed from the Socabaya, most likely in 1842, and had probably been put to other uses in the interim. It is likely, and this is conjecture, that the flagpole Heke cut down was a ‘composite’ pole, in other words, the lower mast was from the Socabaya but the topmast and yard were not.

The Socabaya contributed more to the flagstaff on Te Maiki than just her mast. After the sack of Russell, David Hay, the man who had broken up the Socabaya, petitioned the government ‘for payment of timber supplied for building the blockhouse around the flagpole at Russell’20. Bishop Selwyn noted that ‘the flagstaff was protected by a blockhouse of thick planks’21. It seems that the blockhouse surrounding the flagstaff was built from the salvaged timber of the Socabaya.

But this is not the end of the Socabaya’s remarkable story.

War
In early March 1845 the barque American, 241 tons, sailed into the Bay of Islands. She had been a year and a half out, some of it hard whaling off the isolated Crozet Islands22 and then, before arriving at Russell, off New Zealand and in the Southern Ocean to the east of New Zealand.

The American had come here for the usual reasons, to replenish provisions, get wood for her cooking and trying-out fires, water ship, ship men and give her crew some ‘R&R’. Her cargo of whale oil and whalebone was adequate, but not such as to make it a greatly profitable voyage.
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† The blockhouse was burnt with the town. Bishop Selwyn wrote ‘The work of destruction was still going on. A lofty pillar of smoke arose from the block-house on the hill’.
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Kororarika Painting 1845

Lithograph from painting purported to be the day before flagpole was felled on 11th March 1845. Flagpole portrayed on top of hill on left. Note blockhouse, flags and signal balls. Thomas Clayton. Alexander Turnbull Library

At least eight American whaleships23 were in the Bay of Islands at this time. All these American ships seem to have been anchored near the trading and maintenance facilities at Te Wahapu. Given the tension in the Bay, the fortuitous presence of ‘Old Glory’ flying on the USS St Louis, American warship, 24 guns, also anchored off Te Wahapu, must have been very reassuring to these Yankee whalers.

On 10th March 1845 word was sent to the Americans from Maori sources not to send men for work or ‘liberty’ to Russell the next day. Early next morning a fracas was heard ‘Kororarika’ way. ‘John’ Heke was attacking Russell town. Firing could be heard and the boom of cannon, the flagstaff came down and smoke from the fires of the burning town could be seen from Te Wahapu.

After the sack and burning of Russell a boat rowed up to the American with the offer of trade and, after brief bartering, Captain Havens agreed on a price for the pile of copper that was being offered. These bolts and spikes were for boat building and were quality chandlery. Doubtless Havens thought he had secured a very good deal.

The American was still off Te Wahapu a few days later when the USS St Louis returned to Russell, having taken refugees from the destroyed town to Auckland, coming back to secure any surviving American-owned assets and also the US Consular records. The American was ordered by the USS St Louis to take American whale oil stored at Te Wahapu back to the States. This was duly loaded aboard and the American left the Bay before the blockade was established by the Royal Navy. The American reached her home port of Sag Harbour, United States, via Pernambuco in Brazil, some five months later on 11th August 1845 having made a short voyage totalling 23 months.

 Heke cutting down flagpoleAn idealised painting of Heke cutting down the flagpole. Rather less romantically the pole seems to have been felled more by spade than axe. Contemporary reports indicate that Heke undermined the pole24 to circumvent the protective ironwork. A.D. McCormick 1908. Alexander Turnbull Library.

Theft
On 24th November 1845 a letter25 was written to His Britannic Majesty’s Consulate, New York, by the ‘agents of S & B Huntling & Co.’ owners of the American. The Huntlings are referred to as ‘Friends’ and were undoubtedly Quakers, as were many of the Yankee whaleship captains and owners. The letter explained that the American ‘had brought home a quantity of Copper Bolts and Composition Spikes…which they have reason to believe were purchased from the Natives of the Bay of Islands, after their attack on the British residents of that place in March last’. Believing this to be true, the Huntlings took possession of the copper, weighing 666lbs [300kgs] and found it valued at $107.88. This amount was deposited in an account and they ‘wish [it] restored to the party to whom it rightfully belongs’. The letter had been sent to the British Consulate so they can ‘communicate the circumstances to the authorities in the Bay of Islands…This you will much oblige them and ourselves by doing as soon as possible, in order to show their [Huntlings] disapproval of the conduct of the captain of the American and to remove the unfavourable impression which the transaction may have produced towards the ship’.

There was no instantaneous communication in those days and a letter explaining the circumstances was sent to the Earl of Aberdeen K.T. (Knight of the Thistle) in London dated 24th February 1846 and submitting ‘the matter to your Lordship’.
He said ‘Sort it out’. So a letter was sent to Governor Grey in New Zealand26. This started an enquiry into the affair that had the obvious aim of prosecuting the offenders, rather than any restitution to Hay. Edward Southey, on board the whaleship Edward Carey at the time gave a sworn statement that on ‘the Friday [14th March] after the town was burnt…he borrowed a boat [from the whaleship] to save some property that was buried’ he saw ‘persons’ carrying copper bolts and sheet copper [sheathing from a ship?] ‘down to a boat lying opposite…to where his [Whytlaw’s] store stood…the crew were all white men and it went towards the Wahapu’. He also said that the Edward Carey carried some of this stolen copper as freight and strongly implcated Mr Waitford - an American merchant at Russell - as a party in the theft. Southey also stated ‘that the officers [of the ship] argued that it was not proper…that it was a shame to see Europeans taking things off the Beach and robbing the people, they ought well leave such acts to the natives’…the officers ‘…also suggested they should go to sea at once, as the vessel was in danger of being taken by natives’. Southey said that the American, taking oil from the Wahapu stores, also took the copper aboard27.

This enquiry resulted in Thomas Beckham, Police Magistrate at the Bay of Island between 1840 and 1845, and Gilbert Mair giving the memorandums in 1848, reproduced above, stating that David Hay was the owner of said copper and that it came from him breaking up the ‘Sourabaya / Souchabaya’ ‘from which it was obtained’.

You would have thought these affidavits were enough. The lawyers representing Hay, Brown & Campbell, said in 1848 that ‘the money is very much wanted by Mr. Hay’28. But it was only in 1853 that he was was informed ‘that you are the party entitled to receive the value of the copper’29.

However by October 1858 Hay still had not received restitution and James Clendon30, now the Resident Magistrate at the Bay of Islands, signed an affidavit at Russell on 20th October 1858 before Geoffrey R West, United States Consul for New Zealand and resident at Russell, stating that ‘he was in Whytlaw’s store at Kororarika (Russell) shortly before the destruction of that place by the natives and saw a quantity of copper which he recognised as copper belonging to Mr Hay, and that the said copper was removed in boats belonging to Wahapu to a whaleship and that he saw copper on board of said whaler which copper he supposed to be the same before alluded to in Whytlaw’s store and which the mate of said ship told him had just been shipped’31. A hint of exasperation, expressed diplomatically of course, is detected in this last missive.

Also in October 1858 Geoffrey West informed the U.S. Secretary of State that Mr. David Hay ‘is the rightful owner…that they may without delay make restitution of the said copper or its value to Mr Hay’.

Advertisement for Whytlaw's StoreAdvertisement for Whytlaw’s Store, showing the variety of goods offered. Possibly Hay’s copper from the Socabaya was being sold on commission. Daily Southern Cross 16th December 1843 p1. Alexander Turnbull Library.

On 5th April 1859 David Hay was finally paid £21.11s.6d, less £1.14s.6d 'exchange at 8% discount to the dollar', for a total of £19.17s. Hay received 'a draft upon the Government of the United States for one hundred and seven 88/100 dollars on account of copper bolts being my property taken to the United States by the Ship American in 1845’32. Hay's signature acknowledging receipt of the money is shaky. Whether this was through infirmity or emotion is not known.

This untold story of the sack of old Kororareka, shows that goods looted from the town were sold to ships that were anchored off at the time and that those goods were looted by ‘white men’. It is notable that while only ‘Europeans’ (some were American) were seen stealing the copper, Maori were subsequently blamed for the theft.

The looted copper bought from Russell during the time of its burning shows the capriciousness of human nature, while the return of the value of that copper to its rightful owner some fourteen odd years later shows the honesty of both the owners of the whaler American and of the inter-government bureaucracies that facilitated that return.

It is a victory of integrity over greed. Nearly one hundred and seventy years later, I doff my sunhat to those who righted that wrong.

The Socabaya shows the international perspective of Russell in the nineteenth century. The Bay of Islands was one node in a network of ocean highways linking South America, Tahiti, Sydney, the east coast of North America and Britain, all connected through the Socabaya’s story.

The Socabaya is also far more interwoven into the iconography and legends of Russell than has previously been thought. This ship brought to the Bay of Islands, as a part of itself, the pou (pole) that was to resonate so powerfully in those turbulent times and through the generations that have come after. The mizzen mast of the Socabaya has become an icon of such emotional importance today that presumed bits of it are kept in collections across New Zealand like religious relics, to be viewed behind protective glass with a reverence and fascination, mixed with confusion and awe.

While the events involving the mast of the Socabaya on 11th March 1845 at Te Maiki are dramatic, Chileans would say that the capture of the ship six and a half years before in a ‘cutting out’ operation in Callao Harbour by the Chilean Navy was more so.

Whatever you think, the mast Heke felled on the morning of 11th March 1845 was from a fighting ship. That is very appropriate.

And what of Captain Jacob Havens of the American? He sailed just one whaling voyage. He was not given command of another whaleship.

Socabaya, the many variations of the name.
It would seem that both Spanish and English records had trouble with the name Socabaya. It is appears in the various sources as the Sarabaya (Bibliotheca Nacional de Chile), Sacabaya (Wallace Thorpe unpubl.), Soucabaya (Sydney Monitor & Commercial Advertiser, The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, The Australian, Sydney Herald 1841), Soucabayia (Sydney Herald 18 February 1841), Scoucabaya (Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser 18 March 1841 p3), Sourabayia (Sydney Monitor & Commercial Advertiser), Souchabaya (Gilbert Mair 1848), Sukabaya (Burrows 1886). Suka Bay (Cook 1936), Surabaya (King 1954 p165), Sourabaya (Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser August 1841, Thomas Beckham 1848: Anderson & Anderson 1956, King 1992 p65) and Soyabaya (Richards 2008). The Chilean Navy33 gives no alternative name for the Socabaya, apart from the first name when she was launched, the Francisca.

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1 Armada de Chile website. Action of Islay (12 and 13 January 1838).
2 www.todoababor.es/datos_docum/index_listados.htm
3 Armada de Chile website. Captura de la Corbeta "Socabaya" (17 de agosto de 1838).
4 Rhys Richards. Tahiti and Society Islands Shipping Arrivals and Departures 1767 to 1852. p47 & p50. Reported as the Soyobaya, Grant, 200 horses, for major repairs.
5 The Australian. 18 February 1841 p3.
6 The Sydney Herald. 18 February 1841 p2.
7 Ibid.
8 The Australian. 18 March 1841 p3.
9 Australasian Chronicle 24 July 1841 p3
10 The Cornwall Chronicle (Australia). 14 August 1841 p2.
11 Ibid.
12 Russell Museum. ‘Heritage Corner 54’. Source given as Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Santiago.
13 New Zealand Spectator and Cook’s Straits Guardian. 22 March 1845 p2.
14 By 1848 the colloquial misnaming of the Socabaya to Sourabaya had become so accepted that Thomas Beckham who as Police Magistrate at Russell had recorded the arrival of the Socabaya in 1841, referred to it as the Sourabaya.
15 Letter from Resident Magistrate Thomas Beckham. 7 July 1848. Enclosure No.2. Despatches from United States Consuls in Bay of Islands and Auckland 1839-1906. Microfilm M 86 169.
16 A D. Hay was advertising as a shipwright in Auckland at this time. A Hay is recorded as arriving at Auckland from Russell on the 30th May 1844, three days after the auction of the Socabaya.
17 Affidavit by Gilbert Mair before Mr Brown J.P. 28 June 1848. IA. (Col Sec) 48/1490. Archives New Zealand Wellington.
18 Letter 22nd February 1845 from Thomas Beckham to Governor Fitzroy
19 TNA: PRO ADM 53/2617. HMS Hazard, Ship’s log 1841-46.
20 Petition from David Hay to Government 11 April 1845. Payment was approved and acted on 16 June 1845. IA1 45/620. Archives New Zealand, Wellington
21 Letter Bishop Selwyn to The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. HM Colonial Brig, Bay of Plenty, Easter Eve, 1845. Project Canterbury. Church in the Colonies, No. XII. New Zealand, Part IV.
22 The Crozets are at 46’S in the Indian Ocean. They were discovered in 1772 by Marion du Fresne, who was to leave more than footprints in the Bay of Islands.
23 These were Falcon, Adeline, and Mars of New Bedford. Monticello, Edward Cary of Nantucket. Columbus, London Packet of Fairhaven. American of Sag Harbour: From ‘Whaleship Arrivals at the Bay of Islands 1841-1894’. Alexander. Kororareka Press. 2011.
24 The Courier (Hobart). 17 April 1845 p3.
25 Letter to Anthony Barclay H.B.M Consul from Grinnell Minturn & Co., New York. Nov 24 1845. Despatches from United States Consuls in Bay of Islands and Auckland 1839-1906. Microfilm M 86 169.
26 Letter from W.E. Gladstone, Downing Street to Governor Grey 26 March 1846. Despatches from United States Consuls in Bay of Islands 1839-1906.
27 Affidavit sworn by Edward Southey before Cyprian Bridge, Resident Magistrate and James Clendon J.P. at Russell 4 September 1848. IA 1848/1994 Archives Wellington, New Zealand.
28 Letter Brown and Campbell to the Colonial Secretary 4 July 1848. IA. (Col Sec) 48/1490. Archives Wellington, New Zealand.
29 Letter from Andrew Sinclair, Colonial Secretary to David Hay 8 September 1853. Enclosure No. 5. Despatches from United States Consuls in Bay of Islands.
30 James Clendon pops up all over the place in Russell’s early history, as a trader (his trading station at Okiato was chosen as the site of New Zealand’s first capital) US Consul, merchant, JP, Resident Magistrate and committee man.
31 Letter from Geoffrey West Consulate of United States, Bay of Islands to Secretary of State Washington. 20 October 1858. Despatches from United States Consuls in Bay of Islands. Microfilm M 86 169.
32 Letter James Busby, United States Honorary Consul to David Hay April 5th 1859. Despatches from United States Consuls in Bay of Islands.
33 Wikipedia. List of Decommissioned ships of the Chilean Navy.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_decommissioned_ships_of_the_Chilean_Navy

The Forgotten Flagpoles of Russell

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Chasing the White Whale by Lindsay Alexander

Chasing the White Whale resurrects nineteen long-forgotten stories from New Zealand’s Bay of Islands’ turbulent past, telling many for the first time. There are dramatic tales of ships and shipwrecks, cannon, murder and flagpoles; whaleships and the whalemen who sailed them.
$30.00 + $5.00 postage for NZUHG members.

Contact Lindsay at:
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